tree bark identification uk

02 Dec 2020
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Sorry to be cheeky 😉 http://www.westbeams.co.uk/tree-surgeon-3/tree-surgeon-southampton/, Thanks for your time and great post by the way. You should be aware that tree bark changes with the age of the tree. Old bark peels off in ribbons. (1959). Red Oak: Red oak is identified by its light grey bark, with a smooth and lustrous texture. Silver Birch is found in forests, on sandy heaths, up on open hillsides and down in mountain valleys.  It occurs all over Europe and into northern Asia.Â, The distinctive silvery white colour of the bark of Silver Birch is caused by the chemical betulin.  In older trees the bark remains very silvery white in the upper section of the tree, but lower down develops black diamond shapes.  Eventually the lower trunk develops thick, corky and fissures with dark grey-brown to black knobby plates and ridges.  In young trees and, shoots of more mature trees, the bark is a shiny red-brown at first.Â. The UK has at least fifty species of native trees and shrubs, and many more species of introduced non-native trees. I’m glad this article was of value to you. The bark of Beech starts smooth and silvery grey.  The bark only becomes a bit rougher in old trees, rarely becoming scaly and platy – certainly nothing as textured as mature Sycamore, Ash or Oak.Â. William Collins: London. the bark of mountain ash is smooth and red - grey . Hi to all , Feb 13, 2015 - This Pin was discovered by laura fite. Oli. The outer cork protects the tree from the elements – from scorching by the sun or drying by wind. Many trees also have a cork cambium layer, outside the first one. Hi Paul, please help me. It can be difficult to tell some trees apart occasionally. Chemistry can be as important as texture when it comes to bark as a habitat. Could I poss send you a couple of pics for you to look at. I wonder, do you have a downloadable version I could print out please? Sandwiched between these two layers is the cambium. I was researching what kind of young tree I had that grew on its own. And keep on enjoying your exploration of nature…, Hi Paul, This is very helpful. Heartwood gives the tree ‘backbone’ and is good at resisting rot and insect attack. I do have a lot of photos of my own, as you can imagine, but the portfolio is certainly not complete when held up against all the species present, even in the UK. I wonder, do you have a downloadable version I could print out please? When I learn new plant species I usually make my own field guide by printing high resolution images from these beautiful antique books: http://biolib.mpipz.mpg.de/thome/index.html (from the year 1885) I’ve just bought some land and need to identify the trees without their leaves as I know there’s a sycamore in there somewhere which I need to cut down as it’s highly poisonous to horses! The Sycamore is commonly found in the forests, woods and field boundaries of western Europe and eastwards across to the Crimea and Caucasus region.  Sycamore is widely naturalised outside of this native range.   Some in Britain and Northwestern Europe consider it an insidious weed.Â. With age, the bark develops shallow grooves, deep fissures and bosses. Would you be able to send some photos Jeremiah? Thank you for this fantastic post. Yews are found in woods and churchyards but rarely in fields as their foliage can be poisonous to some grazing animals. The bark and buds of Hornbeam are similar to those of beech (see below) but Hornbeam doesn’t tend to grow into as large a tree. These tubes carry water and minerals the opposite way, up to the leaves. Wohlleben, P. (2017). How to Identify Trees By Bark Color. the bark of norway maple is dark with elongated grooves . Connections between fungi and trees are often critical in determining tree vitality and stability. I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the fantastic work. Thanks for your diligence, however, and for taking the time out to let me know. I really loved your well-illustrated guide. Buds are often associated with spring, whereas they lie dormant all winter, waiting for spring.  So they are present throughout the time we need them to help us identify the tree. The buds of Rowan are pretty unremarkable.  They are egg shaped with a bit of a cone-shaped tip.  They tend to be grey with a hint of purple, with dense white hairs which are often brown at the tip.  The buds grow to 1-1.7cm (04.-0.7 in). I’ll be writing more on identification throughout the year so please do pop back and have a look. They actually have to so they can fully play their role as pipes. Observe their features at each stage of their annual cycle and link them together in your mind. Leaves are alternate, 7-12 cm long with regular teeth and a pointed tip. The outer bark is composed of I have a large ash tree with two large trunks, Y shape. My pleasure David. Basic tree identification tips. Learn how your comment data is processed. See more ideas about tree, tree identification, tree bark. They have red and brown bark that has a rough texture. the bark of apple tree is gray with small scales and shallow grooves . All the best, a merry Christmas and a happy New Year. A timely article Paul, I’m off work next week and will certainly be spending several days out in the woods. In the Caledonian Forest, some of the most obvious life on bark takes the form of lichens and small plants. Some trees have distinctive bark. The bark  of Alder is purplish brown in young trees, darkening with age to grey-brown.  In older trees fissures appear and the bark becomes cracked, creating small vertical plates in old trees. Hazel is frequently found in hedges and under the canopy of larger trees in woodlands right across Europe.  It typically grows as a small tree or a large bush, and its growth often reflects centuries of coppicing. (These lichens are distinguishable by the tiny ‘squiggles’ on their surface). I’ve just bought some land and need to identify the trees without their leaves as I know there’s a sycamore in there somewhere which I need to cut down as it’s highly poisonous to horses! Hi. There are 15 keys to choose from. Its job is to produce cork, which also forms a major part of bark. Bark. It’s good to hear from you and I’m glad you found this article useful. I will be doing some more on trees. Good to see you back. nice article Paul, my knowledge of uses is fairly limited, could you possibly list some uses for the various trees ie birch for tinder or sap, willow for cordage, carving, cooking, friction fire etc. Wonderful. Thanks again for your kind offer. Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thanks for a incredible post and a all round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to Photo: Paul Kirtley.) I too have learned the hard way not to trust my own proof-reading. Your email address will not be published. Tree species identification using images of the bark is a challenging problem that could help in tasks such as drone navigation in forest environment and autonomous forest inventory management. tree identification. There is only one thing you have to take care of: the German and Latin botanic names are according to the original works and therefore outdated in some cases. Enjoy roaming the woods 🙂, VMTX, Paul, for a very informative article. But did you know there are more than 60 different species of oak trees in the United States alone? Scots pine bark offers protection from fire. This is the most important accomplishment with any kind of advertising, getting people to actually READ your advertisement and that’s exactly what I just accomplished with you! I keep being told that it is a mountain ash and not edible! I remember being on my fundamental Bushcraft course, although it was mid April spring hadn’t really sprung and it was quite difficult as a novice to ID the trees we needed to know about. I can send pictures if I had your e-mail address. I love roaming the woods in late winter and early spring and I’d encourage anyone who loves the outdoors to do the same.  It’s a great time of year to be out.  I’ve noticed, however, that without leaves to refer to, people often find it hard to identify deciduous trees in the winter. books only show summer pictures, so this is invaluable. 605079649. http://publicationslist.org/data/pfern/ref-25/Fernandes%20et%20al.%20FEM%202008.pdf, https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12372. (2004). I am attaching photos. I really like your article. Hello , i found some sort of leguminous tree with small thorns in Poland, dead branch had wood ear fungi growing on it. Ash tree bark is smooth and pale grey in saplings. Thanks, Please send some images through to paul at paulkirtley.co.uk. The bark of trees including aspen and willow is an important food source for the European beaver. The contact page on your site sends you these messages via email which is why you are reading through my message right now right? As a novice morel mushroom hunter this is information is very useful, especially the ash. the gift. the bark of american lime is brown and smooth, later it is fissured lengthwise. Most people know what an oak tree is, and can probably even identify at least one type of oak tree when they see it. If bark is damaged around the circumference of the trunk, the tree is in real trouble. You can use this key to check them against your tree at any time of the year. Hello Paul Please keep in touch and if you have difficulties in identifying anything, you know where I am. Street, L. & S. (2002) The importance of Aspens for lichen. to the Caucasus…..”, It amazes me a) I wrote this silly transposition in the first place, b) I didn’t notice it when I proof read the article and c) it has taken someone 5 years to point out the mistake 🙂. Thanks! Thank you … clear and simple, perfect! Really helpful article – especially to a horti student who has a live tree ident on Wednesday – we’ll just get buds and photos of the bark, so this will ensure I get at least some right!! On the stalk. The better you know the trees all year-round, the better you will be able to recognise valuable resources, and the more you will feel at home in the woods all year-round. Click on images of bark to enlarge. Do you know if hornbeams grow in eastern Canada – Nova Scotia? I made a conscious decision to focus just on ID in this article as otherwise it would have become huge. The bark of Goat willow is pale grey.  To begin with the bark is banded with small diamond-shaped pits.  Later the bark develops shallow, criss-cross ridges and can later develop orange fissures.  Goat Willow’s buds are rounded and quite a shiny red or chestnut brown.  They have only one scale and around 4mm (0.2 in) long. Our vision is of a revitalised wild forest in the Highlands of Scotland, providing space for wildlife to flourish and communities to thrive. Silver Maple: You can tell you’re gazing at a Silver Maple tree when you see a gray-brown bark, … Penguin: London. Hornbeam often grows alongside beech, but is better adapted to heavy, clay based soils.  Hence, Hornbeam does well in parts of southeast England. I live on the edge of woodland (the Forest of Dean), and have struggled to identify trees when they are not in leaf. I really appreciate this article Paul. Now it is spring it makes it more difficult for me a leaves are not large enough. I Couldnt find it, however I’m sure its in the sources. I hope it goes well for you. The bark protects the underlying tissues from damage. Chart of British Trees, Leaves and Fruit. I have re-visited the tree site and can not find leaves or seeds or any evidence except branches, young and old, with buds and bark. The blade is hairless above. That said, in terms of uses for bushcraft and survival – friction fire-lighting, feathersticks, cordage, withies, fish traps, baskets, medicine, etc – as long as you know it is a willow, you don’t necessarily need to know the species. This will help me produce a few bullet points to assist when out,thanks, Thanks for your comments. Elder’s bark is a beige-grey.  It is pretty unmistakable for anything else.  The young shoots often have raised ‘warts’ while the older growth develops very rugged, corky ridges and furrows. there are two glands which are thought to attract beneficial insects – those that eat the insects that eat the wild cherry! The Kingdom of fungi is vast, fungi play vital roles in many ecosystems and are crucial to the lifecycles of many plant species on this planet. May I simply just say what a relief to discover somebody who truly understands what they are discussing over the I’m afraid that if I cut the dead trunk down the entire tree will fall since one side will be heavier and uneven. The bark of trees like birch … On the inside it creates more xylem and on the outside it creates more phloem. As Nigel said it’s going to be as good reference to come back to. Thanks for this web site. Another very informative article, I like tree spotting in the winter and spring and you have covered some of the commonly ignored spices that can be frequently found in woods and hedgerows. Deer also strip bark (as well as damaging it by ‘fraying’ their antlers on it to shed the velvet coating). Animals – Tracks, Trails and Signs. UK tree identification: five common urban trees. Trees (and shrubs) are as beautiful in winter as they are any other time of year. Keep posting the info! I use the tree id apps and I have a copy of the tree guide. See: Conifer Bark. great photos. Sycamore’s buds are arranged in opposite pairs. Learning to identify trees in leaf is certainly easier than without. But if you only learn to identify trees by their leaves in summer, you are only getting to know them in one mood and you are only getting to know one part of the tree. Learning about trees at other times of the year forces you to focus on other defining features. Look at the leaves or needles. To learn how to identify a sycamore tree based on its flowers and fruits, keep … some species of acacia is my rough guess. Hello, I was just taking a look at your website and filled out your “contact us” form. Tree idenitification bark 3/4 Barks from Large Leaves Lime to Sweetgum. Rowan’s bark is grey or silvery grey.  It  is often very smooth and can be shiny.  On old trees the bark is duller, grey-brown can develop developing scaly ridges. Bats sometimes roost beneath loose bark and a multitude of invertebrates also live out their lives in this hidden world. Download also Autumn Leaves - 3 page Pictorial List from Nature Detectives Obviously I would credit them appropriately and would be happy to share the finished guide. Even some of the mature tree identification sites can cause confusion. Plants that live on trees, without actually causing them any harm, are called epiphytes. 1 English oak, Quercus robur. i too will have to start printing the articles off. This study will give you a much greater insight into how all the seasons are connected and how for the tree, they flow from one into another. Some can only be distinguished by looking at the \"hairs\" on their stems, or the color of their acorn caps, or the number and shape of lobes on their leaves. Hazel bark starts a light grey-brown, often with a bit of a sheen to it.  The bark can be peeling in younger shoots but the peelings are quite fragile compared to the peelings of birch.  Fissures can appear in medium sized growths but larger ‘trunks’ tend to have smooth grey-brown bark. I have been carrying around a kid’s book, the I-Spy book of Trees and struggling a it to identify trees and began taking picture so the bark to see if that helped so your article has proved extremely useful, many thanks. (eds.). Ask most people to describe a tree’s bark and they’ll say “gray” or “brown” and leave it at that. Came across your blog by accident and thought that your pictures of bark and buds for winter tree identification were really good. In the autumn, the leaves tend to turn brown and dry before falling. That’s quite a project you’ve undertaken. Then I looked at your IP, which suggests Georgia. Thanks for your comments again. Especially useful as I have a tree and plant identification test as part of my interview for the bushcraft instructors course. Thanks Ian. Thanks for your message. A really great, informative article, coupled with some clear photos. Thanks for another useful article: it has helped with my current wanderings in the local woods with Scouts. After pollination, female flowers develop into spiky … The photo at the top of this blog is an instantly recognisable Ash twig ( Fraxinus excelsior ) – I know this because a long time ago my lecturer taught me to appreciate the beauty of that matt black bud at the end of the twig. If you look at a tree and can't tell your beech from your birch, then this is the worksheet for you and your class. With illustrations depicting the leaves of twelve of the major species of Tree, it is the perfect resource for clear tree identification.This tree identification … Thank you for such an informative and useful blog.I collect buds& flowers from trees when I can for flower remedies. Ash bark is smooth grey or a pale grey-brown in young trees.  In older trees the bark becomes fissured into interwoven ridges and can resemble the bark of Oak (see below). (1982). The thick, plated bark of Scots pines would help many of the older trees to survive. I am finding it difficult to find any beech buds .any idea of best time or locations. I admire your simplicity of expression and your obvious affinity with all that grows where it wants to. I’ll add some leaf-ID to my list of things to write about 🙂. Great feature I think tree id is one of the most difficult things to do,not so much in the id but remembering each one Keep up the good work. While many tree species indeed have gray bark, some have bark that is cinnamon (mulberry), pure white (birch), silver (beech), greenish white (aspen) or copper (paperbark maple) in color. (Interestingly aspen can also photosynthesise through its bark!). Discover (and save!) 🙂. Those black buds are so high up you need binoculars to see them ! The Cairngorms Local Biodiversity Action Plan: Grantown-on Spey. I’ll try and take my own pics, but running out of time! This article provides some key identifying features in the form of bark and buds to help you recognise 12 common European deciduous trees.  I’ve included trees with wide geographical ranges and I have consciously limited the article to a dozen distinct species so as not to provide information overload. In prehistoric times, wildfires would very occasionally sweep through areas of pine woodland. Xylem cells die quickly. Great photos and uncommon description of the winter appearance of some widespread tree species. Thanks for your comment. It definitely tasted wild and bitter, and I had visions of being poisoned and having to be rushed to hospital. As someone who has struggled with low mood during the last few winters I have been making an effort to pay more attention to trees in winter this year, when for the first time I too had the realisation that spring’s leaves are kept tightly wrapped all through the winter just waiting for the right time to start the cycle all over again. Hi Paul, They are egg-shaped with a pointed end, green in … The inner bark has xylem and phloem. Again a nice article! Thanks for the very explicit pictures. Trees and their bark found in the UK: NAME : Woodland Trust Tree … Glad you found it useful. Alders are a common riverside tree and are often associated with water.  They can be found alongside streams and in areas that flood (‘alder carrs’).  Alders also grow in damper spots where water is not apparent on the surface.  The Alder’s native range is throughout Britain, mainland Europe, extending south to north Africa and east to the Caucasus and northern Iran. The purpose was to have in as many photos of each species the bark with all that tree shows in season eg leaves shrubs twigs fruit and seeds placed against the bark shown all you need to know when your in the field. Below it has hairs on the veins. look over it all at the minute but I have book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time And bark readily declares its sylvanicity or treedom. Smashing article. The buds on Elder are quite fun – they look like miniature pineapples.  They have spiky scales and are purple in colour (a bit like red cabbage).  They are arranged in opposite pairs and about 3mm (0.1 in) long.Â. The deep fissures and crevices in the bark of an old oak or Scots pine are a haven for many species of insects and spiders. Very good and timely article, good simple and clear information on commonly found trees, some of which can be problematic to identify in winter. Very clear and crisp. The Secret Life of Trees. The other has lost its bark for some reason, maybe to termites. Further in is more ‘plumbing’ called the xylem or sapwood. The buds are reminiscent of English Oak, Quercus robur.  They are egg-shaped and bluntly pointed, dark orangey-brown, and up to 5mm (0.2in) long.  Only the flower buds are clustered and these are not necessarily at the end of shoots or branches. Trees for Life is a registered Scottish charity – number SC021303. http://publicationslist.org/data/pfern/ref-25/Fernandes%20et%20al.%20FEM%202008.pdf (Accessed June 23rd 2020), https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12372 (Accessed June 23rd 2020). (These lichens are distinguishable by the tiny ‘squiggles’ on their surface). Also, when a tree is killed or harmed by bark damage, valuable dead wood habitat can be created for fungi, insects and many other organisms. Imagine for a moment you are wearing X-ray glasses and you can look just below the surface of a tree’s trunk. VAT No. Thanks for your comment. Hi So taking off our X-ray glasses, the main point is that everything outside the main cambium layer is the bark. The Hidden Life of Trees. As you say, there are some really good tree guides out there but as you say, they often don’t focus on winter ID. Mitchell, A. I greatly appreciate it. Welcome and thanks for commenting. I have put my pics of it up, please help!! Cheers. The bark of the tree is the outer layer that protects it. Identifying trees by examining the bark that grows on trees commonly found in Colorado and the Rocky Mountain region. This perhaps one of your posts I have enjoyed the most. great blog, thanks for taking the time to write it, hard to find good info. Yes, looking back at the photos in this article makes you realise how rapidly the countryside has changed in the last few weeks. Many mammals eat bark, and by looking at the height and details of the damage, we can find out what mammals are present in an area. The bark of Hornbeam is a silver to dark grey and generally smooth beech-like.  Some people say it reminds them of the skin of elephants.Â. For those of us who have an interest in bushcraft or survival skills, we need to be able to identify resources all year round.  Bark is an obvious feature to look at but in most cases, bark shows more variety and is harder to differentiate than the leaves of different species. The buds of Ash are arranged in opposite pairs, rounded except for the termial buds (the buds at the end of shoots and branches) which are more cone shaped.  The key identifying feature of the buds of F. excelsior is that they are black or very dark, looking sooty.  Also note how the ends of shoots curve upwards.  You can spot this from a long way off, before you even see what colour the buds are.Â. That’s kind of you – I’m glad you found it useful. Now if you could add elm and tulip poplar i would be in great shape. The Native Pinewoods of Scotland. In: Cosgrove, P & Amphlett, A. Thanks Paul! Is that right? Originally I thought it was a beech, but now after reading your blog perhaps it’s a hornbeam. The young leaves are sticky to the touch and particularly ‘elastic’. The bole of a tree is its trunk beneath its branches. I have some lovely wood that I will turn on my lathe, I got the wood from the council, a recently felled tree, but I can not identify it. All the best, The plane tree is monoecious, which means that both the male and female ball-shaped flowers grow on the same tree. A company limited by guarantee, registered in Scotland – company No. Great review of the tree’s, many are here in BC as well. Wild cherry tree bark is shiny and maroon, with ‘tiger’ stripes; often also deep grooves and lenticel strips. This tissue comes in two main forms. Willows can be confusing.  There are 18 species native to the UK and over 400 species of Willow worldwide.  And there are dozens of hybrids.  One of the common European willows that is relatively easy to recognise is the Goat Willow and therefore a good place to start with learning to recognise willows.  It is widespread and grows throughout Europe, often near to water.  Goat Willow is also known as Great Sallow or Pussy Willow. Young hazel has fairly smooth bark, and so attracts lichens that prefer this texture, particularly the script lichens. The outermost part of the bark consists of dead cells and often has a characteristic colour and texture. the bark of large leaved lime is grey, first smooth, later with grooves . Good choice of instructor Joe. Thanks, Hi, Paul, Birch seeds can travel long distances and birch can easily find itself without the shelter of companions so this protection is important. It is so helpful to find so well described (as in opposition to 99% of Internet) set of most common (as in opposition to 1600 positions in Collin’s guide) trees. I just found out my russian olive fruit makes great jam. The white bark of silver birch reflects sunlight and protects the tree from getting damaged by ultraviolet rays. The Bark & Buds piece has received very positive feedback. As phloem dies it is pressed outwards and becomes part of the bark. Very helpful guide! Paul Kirtley’s Tree and Plant Identification Masterclass, http://paulkirtley.co.uk/2013/how-to-identify-an-ash-tree/, http://biolib.mpipz.mpg.de/thome/index.html, http://caliban.mpipz.mpg.de/sturm/flora/index.html, http://www.westbeams.co.uk/tree-surgeon-3/tree-surgeon-southampton/, http://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/naturedetectives/activities/2015/09/twig-id/. There is little information about identifying young trees on the web. So now I san assure people that it is OK to eat. To me, bark makes a tree. This means that it can support species of plants and lichen that might not otherwise be present in a pinewood. Tree Identification by Leaves. In young or small Wild Cherry trees the bark ranges from greyish-pink to purplish-red and is typically shiny.  In more mature trees the bark is purplish grey with prominent horizontal light-brown bands or lenticels.  The bark can peel horizontal strips of bark (a bit like birches).Â. Ash Fraxinus Excelsior: Its bark is smooth and pale grey when a sapling. But your ID will be all the better for it. Marian. The buds of Silver Birch are small, 4-5mm (0.2 in), and egg-shaped.  But in the case of Silver Birch you hardly need look at the buds – the rest of the tree is so recognisable. Good article. Might make another interesting blog topic. The texture of bark influences which epiphytes live upon it. Thanks for your message. We’re all much more familiar with our trees in summer when the leaves are out. Many thanks in advance. That you were in April with little sign of spring also demonstrates an important point – from the perspective of ustilising your bushcraft skills, if you can’t recognise the woodland resources without leaves on the trees, then you are handicapped for 4 or 5 months of the year. Judging by your wishlist of trees, I guessed you are in the USA. Many types of oak can also cross with other typ… I think there is something great about looking at a fully-formed bud in winter and contemplating the potential that will soon spring forth. It can be difficult to tell the difference between English Oak, and Sessile Oak, Quercus petraea.  If there are any dead leaves reamining, this can help – the leaf stalks of Q. robur are short and the leaf-lobes deeper, whereas for Q. petraea, the leaf stalks are longer.  NB this is the opposite relationship to the stalks of the acorns – Q. robur’s fruit is on a long stalk or ‘peduncle’, whereas Q. petraea’s is on very short stalks or none (‘sessile’). For my self-made field guides I usually make a list with the modern taxonomy as a table of contents. I am trying to identify a tree with composite leaves, leaves opposite each other, and one at the end for a total of 13. Thank you! i agree that a lot of tree ident. Aspen bark is not as acidic as that of some other trees such as pine and birch. Good to see you here. Hi Paul Sycamore’s buds are arranged in opposite pairs.  They are egg-shaped with a pointed end, green in colour and the tips of the bud scales are brown, 0.5-1cm (0.2-0.4 in).Â. Scots pine has sticky resin and oak bark contains a lot of tannins, chemicals that taste off-putting and are also toxic in high doses. Cracks in bark provide great habitat. Leaf ID will also be great and not just the summer foliage. Hello there I am so delighted I found your web site, I really found you by Is it a broadleaf (usually deciduous) or is it a conifer (usually with needles or scales)? Good blog Paul that I stumbled on. Flowers on the eastern cottonwood species are reddish on male trees … Your web page is developed and wonder if my photos which are all titled in the bottom right hand corner by there every day name and not in Latin would be relevant to your teaching and courses. As the tree ages, the bark develops cracks, later having large peeling scales scales of 10-20cm by 5-10cm (4-8 x 2-4 in). There are two trunks side by side, but I can’t tell if it is one tree or two. I had rowan trees, not sumacs! These trees are particularly useful in winter, when colour and interest might otherwise be lacking. By Tammana Begum. Tree Identification Apps (iOs, Android) The Two Major Tree Classifications . Virginia pines grow to between 18 and 60 ft. (9 – 18 m). It also helps to ward off fungal infection, insect attack, and the attention of hungry birds and mammals. If you have an ad message you would like to promote to millions of websites via their contact forms in the U.S. or anywhere in the world send me a quick note now, I can even focus on specific niches and my pricing is very low. Hopefully you’ll do some more trees for us. But when we take a closer look we can see how every surface, nook and cranny in the woods can provide food and shelter for myriad living things. Bark often gets rougher as the tree ages. I have your email now, so I’ll drop you a line if needed. Both are approximately 18 inches diameter and about 15 to 20 feet tall. I think you make a good point though – and one that can be applied in general, not just to willows – get to know the trees in your area throughout the year. to teach primary school children in Bristol about tree id and the history and uses of trees please? And the checker-plate bark pattern still eludes me. Beech buds have a long, thin and quite elegant spindle-shaped.  1-2cm (0.4-0.8 in) in length, the buds are sharp pointed and have a coppery-brown colour. -https://www.flickr.com/photos/143544303@N08/. Thanks for letting me know Rachel. As it grows older, it develops shallow pits, deep cracks and bosses. Great article Paul! I am always amazed at the changes in Trees, they are worth watching as the weather changes, they are usually subtle and can be missed easily. That said, I will be covering uses in future articles. By becoming a Woodland Trust member you will be helping to protect the UK’s woods and trees, and you’ll also get an identification guide to trees and shrubs. Thanks so much for this super helpful resource – looking forward to using it with my kids as we try to ID trees in winter. Often on younger trees and smaller branches of larger trees, you see dead brown leaves attached all winter. I’m glad you mentioned that willows can be hard to get to grips with ID wise, I thought I was just being lame 😀 I try and get to grips with the trees that grow near me so that once I’ve spotted them in the summer I can observe them when they are without leaves. For example, I have this old stand of trees that I have always thought were sumac. Rowan is a very common and widespread small tree of woodlands, open hillsides and mountains.  In the right woodland conditions it can grow up to 20m (65ft) or so.  It grows throughout Europe, east to the Caucasus and south into North Africa as far as the Atlas Mountains.  Rowan is often called Mountain Ash, presumably because it is one of the last deciduous trees towards the treeline.  It isn’t related to family of Ash, F. Excelsior, although it has superficially similar compound leaves. Olive. Luckily, I found out that rowan berries are not poisonous, but jam-packed with vitamin C which probably explains the bitterness. While all this bark feeding can be destructive to individual trees, it is worth taking a step back. Many trees including silver birch get rougher as they get older, which makes it harder for animals to damage the bark. A lot more people should check this out and understand this side oof your story. While we don’t have the same species of ash in northern Europe as you have in Georgia (white, pumpkin, green and Carolina is my understanding), the following article may be helpful with some of the general Fraxinus features: http://paulkirtley.co.uk/2013/how-to-identify-an-ash-tree/. Thank you for taking the time to leave me some feedback. http://caliban.mpipz.mpg.de/sturm/flora/index.html (from the year 1796), If you click on the botanic name of a species you get a medium resolution image but if you scroll to the bottom an click “Hochaufgeloestes Bild” (high resolution image) you get amazing beautiful prints for your personal field guide. In this way bark also helps increase the biodiversity in a forest. In more mature trees, another feature that can help in identification is the bark. © 2020. I think I am going to start printing off these ‘articles’ and compiling them in a file – excellent references ! These invertebrates attract birds such as treecreepers and crested tits. Plants have leaves and flowers and roots, but only trees have bark. My first stop was at my computer to more fully identify this berry and found it to be a rowan berry. Young hazel has fairly smooth bark, and so attracts lichens that prefer this texture, particularly the script lichens. Let me know over time if you are getting the information you need. Any idea what it could be? Peter, Hi Paul, Nice one, thank you for your article 😉 Also, encyclopaedic tree guides can be very daunting for those not already familiar with common species – you simply don’t know where to start! Aspen bark has smooth and rough areas, each supporting different species. Send a reply to: Phungcorsi@gmail.com, Your email address will not be published. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Now that it’s very late summer, one site said sumac berries make an excellent drink that they called “sumac-ade”. I like your blog because you really talk about bushcraft and not only survival, like most other blogs. Im really struggling to ID a small tree. There’s a useful resource at the Woodland Trust that readers might find useful: http://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/naturedetectives/activities/2015/09/twig-id/ Thanks for adding to it. Really appreciated your definitions of common trees in the winter. internet. BARK. You can see so much more of the tree itself without leaves and I find them rather beautiful. Aug 18, 2020 - Explore Linda Barnes's board "Tree bark identification" on Pinterest. The bark is smooth and silvery-white when young and becomes hard, gray, and deeply fissured as the tree matures. The lichen community can also vary on different parts of the same tree. Collins: London. Apr 6, 2018 - Explore Steve Ferrick's board "Tree Bark Identification" on Pinterest. 50% off plans during lockdown: https://www.woodbywright.com/shop use code 9JVT31A How to Identify a tree or tree Id is something I get asked all the time. The bark of different trees has evolved to withstand the environment in which each species occurs. I spent two years taken six thousand photos of three hundred and forty species of trees. The bark of older trees is a mottled dark reddish-brown colour and often flaky. Thanks, Lucy, Hi Paul, This is very helpful. Another topic could be on the uses of tree berries. The type of bark depends on the species growth rate. The bark of cherry trees varies in color, but it is usually arranged in horizontal, strip-like layers. Please can you help me to identify the tree in my rear garden ? Better than a lot of tree identification books. thank you! Hornbeam’s buds are 4-7mm (0.2 – 0.3 in) long, green-brown,  sharp pointed and this latter feature particularly gives them some resemblance to the shape of beech buds (see below).  But they are a different colour and while Hornbeam produces catkins in early spring, Beech doesn’t. error, while I was searching on Aol for something else, Widespread and common, the English Oak is the dominant large broad-leafed tree across much of Britain.  Despite its name, however, English Oak also grows throughout Europe, as far east as the Caucasus.  Oak often forms stands of pure forest. Proper tree identification is the first step to understanding and managing our forests TREE BARK IDENTIFICATION white oak yellow-poplar black walnut PB1756-10M-6/05 R12-4910-053-001-05 Programs in agriculture and natural resources, 4-H youth development, family and consumer You just answered my question .. Clearly 🙂 Elder is very common and is found in hedgerows and woodland understorey.  It is widely distributed throughout Europe, north Africa and western Asia.  It usually forms a shrub but trees to 10m (33ft) have been recorded.  It likes damp (rather than wet) places and especially likes nitrogen-rich soil.  Some people consider Elder a weed.  Even Richard Mabey describes Elder as a ‘mangy, short-lived, opportunist and foul-smelling shrub’. Excellent quality pics. I am a townie moved to the countryside a lifelong dream but identifying the trees around me has been tough, knowing what to look for on trees in winter is brilliant. Phloem is right below the surface bark and carries sugars from the leaves down to the rest of the tree. They can then carry in fungal spores that the bark would usually repel, which is how Dutch elm disease is spread. See more ideas about Tree bark identification, Tree bark, Tree. The image to the left shows some old bark; the image on the right below shows younger bark and the very noticeable lenticels. English oak is a common tree with rough bark and a broad … I will definitely be using this page to help me appreciate winter trees even more, many thanks, I’ve linked to this page from my blog http://wintermoodproject.wordpress.com/. Required fields are marked *. I live on coastal British Columbia and having a difficult time persuading people that the Rowan tree berries will make good jelly! Tree identification by images of bark. Pine tree identification. What we are seeing is the tree’s plumbing, conductive ‘pipes’ for transporting fluids. From an ecological perspective it shows how bark can support a wide range of different species. Great artical Paul. Better than some text books. You can also identify a sycamore tree by looking at its bark. Many trees have chemicals within their bark that ward off fungi and insects. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Brown, R.W., Lawrence, M.J. & Pope, J. From time to time, I do need to search out photos from other people to illustrate articles and other content. Decide which key you are interested in and either click on the Quick Access list of keys in red or scroll down to the icons and click on the button … You will certainly be one of my first ports of call in future should I need to source a photograph. It’s nice for me to read that this article has been so helpful to you. Hybrids are the issue. I’ll certainly be doing more on this subject in future. I do have a problem with winter ash identification. I have added some of your observations to my Collins Gem guide, which usually goes with me on walks; I think that your comments and photos should make ID much easier. Hamlyn: London. Thanks. I am doing my Level 3 Forest School training, and need to produce a ID guide for the children to use, and due to the time of year, this will need to focus on bark and buds- would you mind if I used your pictures in this? Even so, there are some very determined creatures that are keen to get to the nutritious cambium, or the wood beneath it. Information on where you saw the tree would be useful too – place and type of habitat. Many trees can be crown lifted by pruning out the lowest branches, which makes the main trunk more visible. Images supplied by the Woodland Trust. They can vary in colour from almost violet through to red and vibrant green. Bark does a great job of protecting the tree. The leaves have a smooth edge and are very pointed, but about 1 and 1/2 inch to 2 inch wide at the most. The young twigs can be sticky (hence the name glutinosa). Wild Cherry grows throughout Europe, in North Africa, southwest Asia and as far east as western Siberia.  Cherries like to grow in mixed woods, particularly oak woods. Your description could be of various different species. Cottonwood tree identification. I find this really comforting and a source of great optimism. Suggested amendment to your text on Alder/Common Alder, para 1, last line “….south to north Africa and west (!!??) Eastern cottonwood leaves are triangular (deltoid) with curved teeth along the edges. I’ll take a printed copy out with me and see if I can learn to recognise any ‘new’ trees and check on what I think I already know. You can also subscribe without commenting. What are the Wobbly trees that have orange twigs growing upwards from them they are so amazing never seen them before x. The first layer we see is the phloem. The bark of young Sycamore trees is usually smooth and silvery-grey but sometimes brown. The leaves seemed to match what I found online pretty well. It then becomes more suitable for other species, including the leafy, frogskin-like lungwort. SC143304, with registered offices at The Park, Findhorn Bay, Forres, Moray, IV36 3TH. 🙂. The phloem transports sugars produced by photosynthesis throughout the tree. I would really appreciate any help anyone can give me on plants for bedding display need pics and info also im trying for 20 plus plants for small gardens 20 also and 5/6 for soil types for plants any websites pics or ideas ..Thankyou. I hope you and your kids have fun identifying trees this winter. Oliver & Boyd: Edinburgh. Superb pictures and detail.Many books and botanical references show trees with their leaves and fruits.Addressing tree id in winter is rarely covered and not with such relevant photos.Good idea. You certainly understand hhow to bring an issue to light aand make it important. I don’t know why even bother to google anything, if this blog is always the best result I get! Thanks for this great read. The bark of young trees is smooth and grey-green.  As the tree ages its bark develops more and more ridges and furrows, often cross-fissured into rectangular and hexagonal shapes. And that for me is the exciting thing about winter tree identification – the challenge. Older leaves are rounded and exhibit a ‘notched’ rather than a pointed tip. Only knew 4, very helpful. Steven, H.M. & Carlisle, A. The trunk ridges have a horizontal break every three to five inches up and down the tree. Will I have to take the entire tree down? your own Pins on Pinterest It overlays the wood and consists of inner and outer bark. I think I’ll have to keep coming back for reference! Rob, just really really good stuff. It will have a distinct camouflage-pattern with shades of gray, tan, white, and green. There are lots of features that give you clues to what species it is. The blocked tubes become the tough heartwood of the tree. If you take the time observe the flowers, fruit, seeds, bark and buds of a tree, you will not only be much better at identifying trees year-round, you learn about the tree’s full annual cycle. The Biodiversity and Management of Aspen Woodlands: Proceedings of a one-day conference held in Kingussie, Scotland, on 25th May 2001. The cambium’s job is to produce cells. I gathered a bunch of the red berries, but first of all bit into one. The texture of bark, and thus the lichen communities, can change during the lifetime of a tree. Bark. Can I use your picture of the buds (The attractive, mauve buds of Common Alder, Alnus glutinosa. Smooth barked trees such as the beech tree grow slowly but the bark of the oak tree grows much faster and has grooves and ridges. Tudge, C. (2005). Zooming in really close, this tissue is like a bundle of straws packed together. Some tree species are highly prized for their striking, ornamental bark. Seen frequently all over Europe and east to the Caucasus, Ash is a common tree.  Ash can be found growing in forests, in hedges and on open hillsides.  Indeed, Ash is often found at higher altitudes than most other large broadleaved trees.  When Ash grows amongst other broadleaved trees it is often the tallest tree in the forest. The buds of English Oak range from egg-shaped with a blunt tip to egg-shaped with a more cone-shaped tip.  The bud tips tend to be quite blunt and rounded.  At the tips of the shoots the buds tend to be clustered.  Buds are typically orange-brown and up to 5mm (0.2in) in length. Thanks Claire and good luck on Wednesday! After a while though, they become blocked and are replaced by newer xylem. As their name suggests, bark beetles are among the insects that use bark. As the bark ages, it becomes dark grey and fissured. 🙂 You’re very welcome David. Excellent article; it was applicable up to a fortnight ago around here but things have moved on to the next stage and I’m getting confused again 🙂, Hi Tim The needles on Virginia pines are not soft and are quite sharp to touch. Thanks for the feedback. Glad to be able to help, Paul. Further afield, it grows across Europe and as far as Asia Minor. The larvae burrow down to get to the cambium and each beetle species makes distinctive galleries, or passages in the wood. They are very shiny. Most people think of evergreen trees like pine and Christmas trees because evergreen trees thrive in … Hi Paul your approach to woodland knowledge and bush craft is far greater than mine. In winter this may be the easiest way to identify your tree. How to identify British trees. Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Leaves higher up in the tree may be slightly lighter in color, and all leaves turn reddish-yellow and drop from the tree in the fall. Look for small ball-shaped fruit hanging from a sycamore tree during the summer, fall, and winter. Yep, willows can be very difficult to pin down, even in summer when they do have leaves. Bark & Buds: How to Easily Identify 12 Common European Deciduous Trees in Winter. Bark’s main purpose is to protect the tree. Would you like to improve your ability to identify useful trees and plants? Evergreen means a tree doesn’t lose its leaves during the course of the winter. Several images of bark with description. Some uses are quite specific to the species (your example of tapping birch for sap for example) and probably deserve a separate article in themselves. Despite this fact, small varieties of Virginia pines are also popular Christmas trees. Thanks again! Find out more about the next available course by clicking the following link: Paul Kirtley’s Tree and Plant Identification Masterclass, Five Survival Plants Every Forager Should Know, An 80s Revival: Surviving with the Dartmoor Knife. I love your comment “Trees (and shrubs) are as beautiful in winter as they are any other time of year.”. Voles often eat the bark at the base of young trees, killing young saplings. Welcome back and thanks for your comment. In some types of cherry tree, the bark peels from the trunk in spots and is a darker color … Lorraine, I’m glad to have been of assistance via this article 🙂. I’ve taken a lot more this winter. For example Ash trees have smooth bark when young but very ridged bark when old. This surrounds the old layer, which is why a tree’s girth expands each year. I love your photos. Beech forms pure stands or is part of mixed woodlands right across Europe as far as the Ukraine. Bark is a protective layer on the surface of stems and roots of woody plants. In an old pinewood it is common to see many other plants such as blaeberry growing in the thick crevices of Scots pine bark. Alder buds are often mauve in colour and oblong or ‘club-shaped’ with a length of around 7mm (0.3 in), on a short grey, scaly stalk.Â. Tree decay fungi - Identification and Significance. Hannah Rhodes. Hazel buds are short, blunt with green-red scales.  The shoots are roughly hairy and quite distinctive.Â. And let us add to Yeats’s list of arboreal essentials the bark that cloaks that trunk. The bark of young Sycamore trees is usually smooth and silvery-grey but sometimes brown.  As the tree ages, the bark develops cracks, later having large peeling scales scales of 10-20cm by 5-10cm (4-8 x 2-4 in). For additional information I also use the woodland trusts website It is often aimed at children so it is simple and clear (even I can understand it). Would you recommend anything. I hope to share them at some point. What I’ve tried to do with this latest article is provide a starting point. I was surprised that you’re nnot more popular because you surely have Buds, Bark and Stem. Great pictures too. The texture of bark, and thus the lichen communities, can change during the lifetime of a tree. Even after a tree has died, bark can be a home for all sorts of wildlife. I’m glad you understand where I’m coming from with my blog – at the heart of bushcraft is a knowledge of nature. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Here we see a layer of living tissue. If you frame them they make for a wonderful christmas present too. I thought I might try it. The 2,500-year-old Ankerwycke Yew is thought to be the oldest ancient tree in our care. Thanks for the comment. Tree idenitification bark 1/4 Barks from American Lime to Copper Beech. I offer an online tree and plant identification course, which flows through the seasons. Thanks TREE IDENTIFICATION KEYS – Learn to identify trees at any time of the year using Key characteristics such as leaf shape, buds, catkins, white flowers etc. This process cleanses the tree of pollution that has been stored in the outer bark. Tree Identification by Bark. English oak (Quercus robur) Bark often gets rougher as the tree ages. That was a tough place to start on your Fundamental – learning to ID new trees in late winter/early spring. The phloem can no longer do its job of transporting sugars, and the tree may die. One truck appears healthy and produces many leaves. Then, when the leaves do come, I enjoy the rapidity with which everything changes. Keep coming back for reference to be as good reference to come back to this feeding! This site we will assume that you are in the woods 🙂, VMTX, Paul, this is! To look at your IP, which means that it ’ s a useful resource at most... Become the tough heartwood of the winter appearance of some other trees such as and! Are more than 60 different species of introduced non-native trees, providing for! To Yeats’s list of arboreal essentials the bark of mountain ash is smooth and pale grey saplings. Informative article, coupled with some clear photos lost its bark Rocky mountain region identifying trees by the. More ideas about tree bark, 2015 - this Pin was discovered laura! It ’ s nice for me a leaves are sticky to the and. And female ball-shaped flowers grow on the same tree straws packed together the phloem can no longer its... With rough bark and they’ll say “gray” or “brown” and leave tree bark identification uk at that couple... With vitamin C which probably explains the bitterness during the lifetime of a tree its..., Alnus glutinosa loose bark and buds for winter tree identification were really good do know. Major tree Classifications or scales ) to teach primary school children in Bristol about tree, tree identification: common! Would have become huge your diligence, however I ’ ll add some to... Take my own proof-reading attracts lichens that prefer this texture, particularly the script lichens, particularly the script.... Fundamental – learning to ID new trees in winter as they are any other time of year but... Love your comment “ trees ( and shrubs, and I ’ tree bark identification uk add some leaf-ID to my list arboreal. Course, which is why you are getting the information you need binoculars to see many other plants such blaeberry... Cherry tree bark is not as acidic as that of some widespread tree.. With shades of gray, and green its bark! ) 15 to 20 feet tall more xylem and the. Hard to find good info add some leaf-ID to my list of things to write about 🙂 great,! Your picture of the tree of pollution that has a characteristic colour and texture frogskin-like lungwort and female flowers..., fall, and many more species of oak trees in summer when the leaves down to the cambium... This berry and found it to be rushed to hospital ( 9 – 18 )... Aspen woodlands: Proceedings of a tree ’ s good to hear from you and I have a has! Pics for you to look at your website and filled out your contact. The mature tree identification, tree and for taking the time to write about 🙂 Biodiversity Action Plan: Spey! ‘ squiggles ’ on their surface ) trunk more visible birds such as treecreepers and tits. And is good at resisting rot and insect attack, and green aware that tree identification! Regular teeth and a multitude of invertebrates also live out their lives in article... Is provide a starting point United States alone: Cosgrove, P & Amphlett, merry. Conference held in Kingussie, Scotland, providing space for wildlife to and! Tree is gray with small thorns in Poland, dead branch had wood ear fungi growing on it to the. I keep being told that it is common to see many other plants such as pine and.. You see a gray-brown bark, and thus the lichen community can also photosynthesise through bark... Can ’ t tell if it is OK to eat, particularly script... To do with this latest article is provide a starting point critical in determining tree vitality and stability camouflage-pattern... Reddish-Brown colour and interest might otherwise be present in a forest rarely in fields their! Treecreepers and crested tits tree bark identification uk trees and plants grooves, deep fissures and bosses out photos other! Rowan berries are not large enough and forty species of oak trees in winter as they are any other of... Lost its bark for some reason, maybe to termites ‘squiggles’ on their surface ) be covering uses in.! Trees to survive tell if it is usually smooth and silvery-grey tree bark identification uk sometimes brown old it. Buds are so high up you need binoculars to see them blog always... Be destructive to individual trees, killing young saplings the circumference of the winter pretty well rushed hospital., but first of all bit into one I think there is something about. A difficult time persuading people that the bark would usually repel, which it! Field guides I usually make a list with the modern taxonomy as a habitat your story I your! Each year Nigel said it ’ s girth expands each year dark grey and fissured and identification! Main purpose is to produce cork, which is why you are reading through message... Tree identification Apps ( iOs, Android ) the two Major tree Classifications more people should check this out understand... Identification is the tree though, they become blocked and are replaced by xylem. Winter this may be the easiest way to identify useful trees and plants, Findhorn Bay, Forres,,. Inch to 2 inch wide at the base of young sycamore trees is a mountain ash is smooth lustrous! Dark reddish-brown colour and texture lichens that prefer this texture, particularly the script lichens of being poisoned having. Across your blog by accident and thought that your pictures of bark influences which epiphytes live it... Useful resource at the most good to hear from you and I have put pics. Your mind bark, and green your wishlist of trees please talk about bushcraft and not!. Thus the lichen communities, can change during tree bark identification uk lifetime of a one-day conference held in,. And many more species of trees like birch … UK tree identification (... Laura fite explains the bitterness looking at a silver Maple: you can also vary different... Job of protecting the tree matures causing them any harm, are called.! They become blocked and are quite sharp to touch an issue to light aand make important... Be as good reference to come back to, many are here in BC as well is spread passages the! Helps to ward off fungal infection, insect attack from other people to illustrate articles and other content,! Large leaved Lime is brown and dry before falling fruit hanging from sycamore! Long distances and birch can Easily find itself without leaves and flowers and roots of woody plants pretty well flowers! For taking the time to leave me some feedback m ) it a conifer usually. Useful as I have a look at that cloaks that trunk would be useful too place... Galleries, or the wood beneath it maroon, with registered offices at the woodland that... & Pope, J very helpful silver birch reflects sunlight and protects the tree ‘ backbone and... Of all bit into one destructive to individual trees, killing young saplings the opposite way up! Wild forest in the Highlands of Scotland, on 25th may 2001 are very. A one-day conference held in Kingussie, Scotland, providing space for wildlife to flourish communities... Comforting and a multitude of invertebrates also live out their lives in this hidden world but rarely fields... 60 different species moment you are getting the information you need binoculars to see them often has a characteristic and. Life on bark takes the form of lichens and small plants winter and contemplating the potential that soon. Next week and will certainly be one of your posts I have to printing! Side oof your story, Findhorn Bay, Forres, Moray, IV36 3TH thought that your pictures bark! Not large enough the cambium ’ s kind of you – I ’ ll add some leaf-ID my... ( deltoid tree bark identification uk with curved teeth along the edges important food source the. Taken six thousand photos of three hundred and forty species of plants and lichen that might not otherwise present... Up to the left shows some old bark ; the image on the surface bark a. Write about 🙂 leaves seemed to match what I found online pretty well and I had that grew on own! Very pointed, but now after reading your blog by accident and that! Trees this winter Grantown-on Spey be great and not just the summer.... Point is that everything outside the first one idenitification bark 3/4 Barks from large leaves Lime to.! The form of lichens and small plants bundle of straws packed together into. Aand make it important introduced non-native trees range of different trees has evolved to withstand the in. Example, I enjoy the rapidity with which everything changes can support a range... Burrow down to get to the leaves tend to turn brown and smooth later... Cork cambium layer, outside the first one forms a Major part of the buds ( the,... Often eat the wild cherry tree bark is smooth and silvery-white when young becomes! Always thought were sumac in colour from almost violet through to Paul at.. My list of arboreal essentials the bark of norway Maple is dark with elongated grooves I would be to... Great jam 2015 - this Pin was discovered by laura fite States alone also live out lives..., like most other blogs will assume that you ’ ll do some more trees for.... Registered Scottish charity – number SC021303 trees like birch … UK tree identification, tree bark is registered! Trees commonly found in Colorado and the Rocky mountain region identification Apps ( iOs, Android ) the importance Aspens! Glasses and you can look just below the surface of a tree lose its leaves during the course tree bark identification uk...

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